Ch. 11:  Protection of the Global Environment

The Kigali Agreement: Using the Montreal Protocol to Phase

out Ozone-depleting Substances that Are Greenhouse Gases

As noted in the casebook (pp. 1226-1227), in October 2016 the 28th Conference of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, meeting in Kigali, Rwanda, agreed to a global phase out of hydrofluorocarbons, a potent set of greenhouse gases that also are ozone-depleting substances. It is estimated that these measures alone may slow global warming by as much as 0.5C.  This is a tremendous achievement that is the product of years of meticulous diplomacy. The Montreal Protocol already has been responsible for greater reductions in greenhouse gas emissions than even the Kyoto Protocol.  The new measures will help reduce the impact on climate change of the rapid growth of air conditioning use in developing countries. 

However, as noted on p. 1227 of the casebook, a divided panel of the D.C. Circuit in an opinion by current Supreme Court nominee Judge Brett Kavanaugh held that EPA does not have the authority to require replacement of HFCs under Title VI of the Clean Air Act. Mexichem Fluor, Inc. v. EPA, 866 F.3d 451 (D.C. Cir. 2017).  The publisher’s spellcheck apparently changed “Fluor” to “Flour” - the first typo we have discovered in the 8th edition.  Both manufacturers of most refrigerators and air conditioners in the U.S. and NRDC are sought Supreme Court review of this decision, but the Court denied cert.

Climate Change Litigation

    Professor Michael Gerrard of the Columbia University School of Law maintains a website tracking these cases at: Columbia’s Center for Climate Change Law has a blog on climate change at: